In-body-Functional Electrical Stimulation

There is a long history for the therapeutic use of electrical stimulation. More than 30 years ago Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) was developed as an orthotic system to be used for SCI patients. The goal of FES is to obtain an immediate contraction of the skeletal muscles that will lead to a functional movement. Even though FES assisted walking has been available for more than three decades, it has not been widely used in rehabilitation because the stimulators were bulky, unreliable, prone to breakage and expensive. Nerve stimulation induces a harmonious and controllable contraction of the entire muscle while epimysial/percutaneous stimulation induces an on/off contraction of the muscle (an electrical-induced cramp of the muscle). This in turn makes such contraction difficult to be used in every day life and also causes a high degree of muscle fatigue. The LION-procedure (Laparoscopic Implantation Of Prostheses) to the pelvic somatic nerves (sciatic + femoral nerves) is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that consists of the implantation the laparoscopic way of microelectrode to the targeted nerves for electrical stimulation or neuromodulation. The laparoscopic approach enables an easy and minimally invasive approach to the pelvic nerves for the placement of micro stimulators to the pelvic somatic nerves. Deep within the pelvic cavity, the microstimulators are protected from external trauma, device breakage and migration. Such procedures are performed in ambulatory sector. The LION procedure enables in this way an “in-body-FES“ that can be used at any time and at any location of the pelvic nerves.
The stimulation of the pelvic nerves can generate various training forms:
  • Passive continuous training: at low frequency / low energy, allows long-term muscle training in the background without any visible muscle contractions or movement and without the patient feeling anything. This is a passive yet extremely effective form of muscle training.
  • Active training: at higher frequency and higher energy levels the “in-body-FES” generates muscle contractions and harmonious movements. This active form of training can also be divided into two distinct forms: the patient may actively support the training of the specific muscles he/she wishes to train through the electrical stimulation or the opposite muscles are activated and a form of resistance training is generated.

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  • Indications

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  • Literature Footnotes

    In-body-Functional Electrical Stimulation - Literature Footnotes

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