1. Possover M, Forman A, Rabischong B, Lemos N, Chiantera V. Neuropelveology: new groundbreaking
discipline in medicine. J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2015;22:1140-1.
2. Possover M, Andersson KE, Forman A. Neuropelveology: an emerging discipline fort he management of
chronic pelvic pain. Int Neurourol J 2017; 21(4): 243-6.
3. Zanatta A, Rosin MM, Machado RL, Cava L, Possover M. Laparoscopic dissection and anatomy of sacral
nerve roots and pelvic splanchnic nerves. J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2014;21(6):982-3.
4. Possover M, Forman A. Pelvic neuralgias by neurovascular entrapment: anatomical findings in a series of
97 consecutive patients treated by laparoscopic nerve decompression. Pain Physician 2015;18(6):1139-43.
5. Lemos N., Possover M. Laparoscopic approach to intrapelvic nerve entrapments. J Hip Preserv Surg 2015;
2:92-8.
6. Possover M, Schneider T, Henle KP. Laparoscopic therapy for endometriosis and vascular entrapment of
sacral plexus. Fertil Steril 2011;95:756-8.
7. Possover M, Baekelandt J, Chiantera V. The laparoscopic approach to control intractable pelvic neuralgia:
from laparoscopic pelvic neurosurgery to the LION procedure. Clin J Pain. 2007 Nov-Dec;23(9):821-5 .
8. Possover M. A novel implantation technique for pudendal nerve stimulation for treatment of overactive
bladder and urgency incontinence. J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2014;21:888-92.
9. Gupta P, Ehlert MJ, Sirls LT, Peters KM. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation and sacral neuromodulation:
an update. Curr Urol Rep. 2015;16(2):4.
10. Possover M. The LION procedure to the pelvic nerves for recovery of locomotion in 18 people with spinal
cord injuries– a case study. Surg Technol Int 2016; Oct 26; XXIX:19-25.
11. Possover M., Forman A. Recovery of supraspinal control of leg movement in a chronic complete flaccid
paraplegic man after continuous low-frequency pelvic nerve stimulation and FES-assisted training. Nature
– Spinal Cord Ser Cases. 2017;3:16034.
12. Sumbul A., Garcia JM. Sarcopenia, cachexia and aging: Diagnosis, mechanisms and therapeutic options.
Gerontology. 2014;60(4): 294-305.
13. Liu CJ, Latham NK. Progressive resistance strength training for improving physical function in older
adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009:CD002759.
14. Baldi JC, Jackson RD, Moraille R, Mysiw WJ. Muscle atrophy is prevented in patients with acute spinal
cord injury using functional electrical stimulation. Spinal Cord. 1998;36(suppl 7):463-9.
15. Dudley GA, Castro MJ, Rogers S, Apple DF Jr. A simple means of increasing muscle size after spinal cord
injury: a pilot study. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1999;80(suppl 4):394-6.
16. Kagaya H, Shimada Y, Sato K, Sato M. Changes in muscle force following therapeutic electrical
stimulation in patients with complete paraplegia. Paraplegia. 1996; 34(suppl 1):24-9.
17. Gallien P, Brissot R, Eyssette M, et al. Restoration of gait by functional electrical stimulation for spinal
cord injured patients. Paraplegia. 1995;33(suppl 11):660-4.
18. Shimada Y, Sato K, Abe E, et al. Clinical experience of functional electrical stimulation in complete
paraplegia. Spinal Cord. 1996;34(suppl 10):615-9.
19. Hjeltnes N, Aksnes AK, Birkeland KI, Johansen J, Lannem A, Wallberg-Henriksson H. Improved body
composition after 8 wk of electrically stimulated leg cycling in tetraplegic patients. Am J Physiol.
1997;273(suppl 3, pt 2):R1072–R1079.
20. Scremin AM, Kurta L, Gentili A, Wiseman B, Perell K, Kunkel C, et al. Increasing muscle mass in spinal
cord injured persons with a functional electrical stimulation exercise program. Arch Phys Med Rehabil.
1999;80(suppl 12):1531-6.
21. Pacy PJ, Hesp R, Halliday DA, Katz D, Cameron G, Reeve J. Muscle and bone in paraplegic patients, and
the effect of functional electrical stimulation. Clin Sci (Lond). 1988; 75(suppl 5):481-7.
22. Duvoisin MR et al. Characteristics and preliminary observations of the influence of electromyostimulation
on the size and function of human skeletal muscle during 30 days of simulated microgravity. Aviat Space
Env Med 1989; 60: 671-8.
23. Morrissey MC, Brewster CE, Shields Jr CL, Brown M. The effects of electrical stimulation on the
quadriceps during post-operative knee immobilization. Am J Sports Med 1985; 13: 40-5.
24. Takeda S. Central control of bone remodeling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005; 328:697-9.
25. Garland DE, Foulkes GD, Adkins RH, Stewart CA, Yakura JS. Regional osteoporosis following incomplete
spinal cord injury. Contemp Orthop 1994; 28:134-8.
26. Takeda S, Elefteriou F, Levasseur R, Liu X, Zhao L, Parker KL, Armstrong D, Ducy P, Karsenty G. Leptin
regulates bone formation via the sympathetic nervous system. Cell 2002; 111:305-17.
27. Levasseur R, Sabatier JP, Potrel-Burgot C, Lecoq B, Creveuil C, Marcelli C. Sympathetic nervous system
as transmitter of mechanical loading in bone. Joint Bone Spine 2003; 70:515-9.
28. Schwarzman RJ. New treatments for reflex sympathetic dystrophy. N Engl J Med 2000; 343:654-6.
29. Pacy PJ, Hesp R, Halliday DA, Katz D, Cameron G, Reeve J. Muscle and bone in paraplegic patients, and
the effect of functional electrical stimulation. Clin Sci (Lond). 1988; 75(suppl 5):481-7.
30. Chantraine A, van Ouwenaller C, Hachen HJ, Schinas P. Intra-medullary pressure and intra-osseous
phlebography in paraplegia. Paraplegia 1979; 17:391-9.
31. Turner CH, Forwood MR, Otter MW. Mechanotransduction in bone: do bone cells act as sensors of fluid
flow? FASEB J 1994; 8:875-8.
32. Modlesky CM, Majumdar S, Narasimhan A, Dudley GA. Trabecular bone microarchitecture is deteriorated
in men with spinal cord injury. J Bone Miner Res 2004; 19:48-55.
33. Eser P, de Bruin ED, Telley I, Lechner HE, Knecht H, Stussi E. Effect of electrical stimulation–induced
cycling on bone mineral density in spinal cord–injured patients. Eur J Clin Invest. 2003;33(suppl 5):412–9.
34. Harkema S, Gerasimenko Y, Hodes J et al. Effect of epidural stimulation of the lumbosacral spinal cord on
voluntary movement, standing, and assisted stepping after motor complete paraplegia: a case study. Lancet
2011;377:1938-47.
35. Lu MC, Ho CY, Hsu SF et al. Effects of electrical stimulation at different frequencies on regeneration of
transacted peripheral nerve. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2008; 22:367-73.
36. Thawer HA, Houghton PE. Effects of electrical stimulation on the histological properties of wounds in
diabetic mice. Wound Repair Regen 2001;9:107-15.
37. Junger M, Zuder D, Steins A, Hahn M, Klyscz T. Treatment of venous ulcers with low frequency pulsed
current (Dermapulse) effects on cutaneous microcirculation. Der Hautartzt 1997;18:879-903.
38. Stromberg B. Effects of electrical currents on wound contraction. Ann Plast Surg 1988;21:121-3.
39. Mawson A, Siddiqui F, Connolly B, Sharp C, Summer W, Binndo J Jr. Effect of high voltage pulsed
galvanic stimulation on sacral transcutaneous oxygen tension levels in the spinal cord injured. Paraplegia
1993;31:311-9.
40. Taylor K, Fish MR, Mendel FC, Burton HW. Effect of a single 30 minute treatment of high voltage pulsed
current on edema formation in frog limbs. Phys Ther 1992;72:63-8.
41. Guys JM, Camerlo A, Hery G. Neurogenic bladder in children: basic principles in diagnosis and treatment.
Ann Urol 2006; 40(1): 15-27
42. Guys JM, Haddad M, Planche D, Torre M, Louis-Borrione C, Breaud J. Sacral neuromodulation for
neurogenic bladder dysfunction in children. J Urol 2004; 172(4): 1673-6
43. Possover M, Chiantera V, Baekelandt J. Anatomy of the sacral roots and the pelvic splanchnic nerves in
women using the LANN technique. Surg Lap Endosc Percutan Tech 2007; 17: 508-510

related contents
  • Introduction

    The wide array of specialty fields and diverse branches of medicine along with ever increasing knowledge has been responsible for the continuous division of medicine into increasingly specialized fields and sub-divisions.

    View →
  • In-body-Functional Electrical Stimulation

    There is a long history for the therapeutic use of electrical stimulation. More than 30 years ago Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) was developed as an orthotic system to be used for SCI patients.

    View →
  • Indications

    The LION procedure to the pelvic nerves in the treatment of children with spina bifida.
    “In-body-FES” in people with spinal cord injuries

    View →
  • ISoN Projects

    • Development of a micro stimulator easely implantable to nerves by endoscopic approach, without need for cable-extension, and small enough to be implanted also in children (spina bifida)
    • Clinical studies in spina bifida children and SCI people

    View →